My ancestor Malinda Holt was enslaved by Giles Holt of Hardin County, Tennessee. Giles enslaved her along with one other woman, named Judy (sometimes written Julia) Holt. Both woman had multiple children of around the same ages. Although I will probably never know whether or not Malinda and Judy were actually sisters, I have decided to track Judy’s children as my relatives because it is obvious that their children had close kinship ties and considered each other family. I did a post sometime ago about Judy’s son James and his amazing life story. This rough chart shows each woman and their children:
One (of the many) wretched things about slavery is that often we trace back to that elusive female, listed as head of household in 1870 and we find no hint of a man. Our climb through the tree stops—there is no other branch to trace. Particularly if the children have light complexions, we wonder whether our ancestor was one of the millions who conceived children by white men in the community. We all know that slaves formed families with enslaved neighbors, but this relationship can be difficult to uncover if they are not found living together in 1870.
As I tracked Judy Holt’s children, a delightful surprise emerged. Judy’s son Henry Holt died during the Civil War, while he was a member of the 55th US Colored regiment. His mother Judy’s subsequent application for a pension in 1887 provided me with details of her children’s names and (approximate) birthdates. One of the depositions, from fellow soldier Richard Kendall, also included this little gem:
Richard “was well-acquainted with Henry Holt and knew his family. I do not know whether his father is dead or alive. His name [was] Sam Dixon.”
At last I found evidence of Judy’s relationship with a (presumably) black man. But where was he? For years I couldn’t find him because of my utter inability to be very creative with name spelling variations. But looking through Hardin County probate records recently led me to the will of one Elizabeth Dickson (note the spelling). That rang a bell in my mind, and sure enough, among the legacies she left to her daughter Jane was this:
“and she is to have my black man Samuel while…she lives single”
Racing back to Ancestry, there he is: Samuel Dickson in 1870, in the town of Savannah, right where he should be, and the right age, although he appears to be married to Lucinda now. Or perhaps Lucinda is a daughter.
I got even luckier (I think its all luck at this point) when Judy also included in her pension file the fact that her daughters Sarah and Frances were both now surnamed “Davy”. Using that surname, I found, Judy’s daughter Frances’ (nicknamed Fannie) death certificate in 1917. Guess who was listed as her father? Sam Dickson.
While there is no way to know exactly how many of Judy’s children were fathered by Sam, the fact that I was able to uncover evidence for two of her children is pretty amazing. This is also a good example of using the technique of cluster research, to expand your vision and research the group of people surrounding your direct ancestors. The hunt for elusive enslaved fathers continues.