I have been thinking lately about how many states and locations have unique record sets that can really give a boost to those doing slave research. For example, how slave births in Virginia are recorded from the year 1853, and how Maryland’s slave statistics name the last slaveowner as well as surnames for most slaves. They may not survive for every county within a state, but if they do, you’re in for a treat.
For those who had enslaved ancestors in Washington, D.C., a wonderful set of records exist. The National Archives has the following:
Records of the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Columbia Relating to Slaves, 1851-1863 (M433)
-these rolls include emancipation, manumission papers, freedom affidavits, and fugitive slave case papers
Habeas Corpus Case Records of the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Columbia, 1820-1863 (M434)
Both of these first two have very good information for those of us descended from slaves. Christine’s Genealogy website has indexed parts of several of these records on her website:
An even more exciting set of records exist. D.C. enacted an Emancipation Act in 1862 where the federal government agreed to pay slaveowners up to $300 for each slave laboring in D.C. Slaveowners applied in droves. This created the record set:
Records of the Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation of Slaves in the District of Columbia (M520)
These record sets include the petitions of each slaveowner to qualify under the terms of the Act. In most cases, they provided very detailed physical descriptions of the slaves, what kind of work they did, and amazingly enough, the circumstances of where and how they acquired each slave. Sometimes, that can take us years to discover, if we are ever able to discover it! They even oftentimes reveal those
Very precious relationships among enslaved ancestors that are so hard to come by. Even luckier for us, Dorothy Provine has published all of these record sin a wonderful book I just purchased, “Compensated Emancipation in the District of Columbia”. The book is available for purchase from Heritage books.This book is well worth the purchase price. Mrs. Provine also produced a volume called “District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 1821-1861”.
A few examples will illustrate the richness of the records (these are abstracted, the originals are more detailed):
- Petition of Alfred Y. Robinson, of PG County, MD for Edward Humphrey, age 35 or 40, mulatto….Robinson inherited him from his mother Elizabeth Robinson and has held him for over 30 years.
- Petition of William Gunton, administrator for William A. Gunton, for two slaves, Joshua and Hennie. The late William A. Gunton purchased Joshua from William Tolson, Hennie was a gift from John B. Mullihan of PG County to his daughter upon her marriage to his son, William A. Gunton on June 20, 1848.
- Petition of Mary A. Smoot, for two persons, Henry and Margaret. Smoot’s grandmother, the late Mrs. Mary B. Smoot, left these persons to her by a will that was recorded in D.C. in June 1857
- Petition of Matthew McLeod, for Ellen Cole, age 51 or 52. He acquired title from the will of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Mary Manning of St. Mary’s County, and later the will of his deceased wife.
- Petition of Anna Bradley for William and James (brothers). Bradley acquired title from her mother. William and James’ great-grandmother, Patty (!!!) was a slave of Bradley’s mother, Elizabeth Ann King, long since deceased. Her mother acquired Patty from John Hammond, her father (!!!), late of Annapolis, MD. Bradley states she also became the owner of Jenny, the daughter, and of Mary, the granddaughter of Patty (!!!). Mary was the mother of William and James and thus they have belonged to Bradley since their birth.
Aren’t these records incredible?? As you can see, many slaves were employed in D.C. but were owned by people living in Maryland and Virginia as well as a few other states. I found some important clues regarding several owners of my Montgomery County, MD ancestors, who also applied under the Act. Christine’s Genealogy Website also has an name index to these petitions on her website.
I hope if D.C. is one of your research areas (or someone you know) you will check these records out. And keep hope alive–a record set like this may open up one day for your state and county. We can always hope, right?